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Demographics of Greece


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Greece
Updated: 2017-09-09T11:04Z
Demographics of the Hellenic Republic
Coat of arms of Greece.svg
Population10,955,000 (2015 est.)[1]
Growth rate-1.01 people/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Birth rate9.45 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate10.51 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
Life expectancy79.66 years
 • male77.11 years
 • female82.37 years (2010 est.)
Fertility rate1.42 children born/woman (2011 est.)[2]
Infant mortality rate4.92 deaths per 1,000 live births (2012 est.)[3]
Age structure
0–14 years14.4%
15–64 years66.6%
65 and over19.0%
Sex ratio
At birth1.06 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Under 151.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.00 male(s)/female
65 and over0.78 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Greek(s) adjective: Greek
Major ethnicGreeks
Minor ethnicAlbanians, Roma, Turks, Bulgarians, Pomaks,[4] Romanians, Russians, Georgians and Armenians[5]
Language
OfficialGreek
SpokenGreek (Majority), Arvanitika, Macedonian/Bulgarian, Pomak, Aromanian, Turkish

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Greece, including ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The Demographics of Greece refer to the demography of the population that inhabits the Greek peninsula. The population of Greece was estimated by the United Nations to 10,955,000 in 2015.

Historical overview

Greece was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic period. Prior to the 2nd millennium BC, the Greek peninsula was inhabited by various pre-Hellenic peoples, the most notable of which were the Pelasgians. The Greek language ultimately dominated the peninsula and Greece's mosaic of small city-states became culturally similar. The population estimates on the Greeks during the 4th century BC, is approximately 3.5 million on the Greek peninsula and 4 to 6.5 million in the rest of the entire Mediterranean Basin,[6] including all colonies such as those in Magna Graecia, Asia Minor and the shores of the Black Sea.

During the history of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek peninsula was occasionally invaded by the foreign peoples like Goths, Avars, Slavs, Normans, Franks and other Romance-speaking peoples who had betrayed the Crusades. The only group, however, that planned to establish permanent settlements in the region were the Slavs. They settled in isolated valleys of the Peloponnese and Thessaly, establishing segregated communities that were referred by the Byzantines as Sclaveni. Traces of Slavic culture in Greece are very rare and by the 9th century, the Sclaveni in Greece were largely assimilated. However, some Slavic communities managed to survive in rural Macedonia. At the same time a large Sephardi Jewish emigrant community from the Iberian peninsula established itself in Thessaloniki, while there were population movements of Arvanites and Vlachs, who established communities in several parts of the Greek peninsula. The Byzantine Empire ultimately fell to Ottoman Turks in the 15th century and as a result Ottoman colonies were established in the Balkans, notably in Macedonia, the Peloponnese and Crete. Many Greeks either fled to other European nations or to geographically isolated areas (i.e. mountains and heavily forested territories) in order to escape foreign rule. For those reasons, the population decreased in the plains, while increasing on the mountains. The population transfers with Bulgaria and Turkey that took place in the early 20th century, added in total some two million Greeks from to the demography of the Greek Kingdom.

Urbanization


Population

Population of Greece since 1961.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
19286,204,684—    
19407,344,860+18.4%
19517,632,801+3.9%
19618,398,050+10.0%
19718,831,036+5.2%
19819,729,350+10.2%
199110,258,364+5.4%
200110,964,020+6.9%
201111,123,392+1.5%
201610,783,748−3.1%
Source: Hellenic Statistical Authority

According to the 2001 census the population of Greece was 10,964,020. Eurostat estimations as of January 2008 gave the number of 11,214,992 inhabitants in the Greek peninsula. According to the official 2011 census, which used sophisticated methodology, the population of Greece was 10,816,286.

CensusPopulationChange
19718,768,372-
19819,739,58911.1%
199110,259,9005.3%
200110,964,0206.9%
201110,816,286-0.88%

By region

Greece is divided into nine geographic regions. The population of each region according to the 2001 census:

RegionPopulation
Aegean Islands508,807
Central Greece4,591,568
Crete601,131
Epirus353,822
Ionian Islands212,984
Macedonia2,424,765
Peloponnese1,155,019
Thessaly753,888
Thrace362,038
Total10,964,020

Age structure

Being part of the phenomenon of the aging of Europe, the Greek population shows a rapid increase of the percentage of the elderly people. Greece's population census of 1961 found that 10.9% of the total population was above the age of 65, while the percentage of this group age increased to 19.0% in 2011. On the contrary, the percentage of the population of the ages 0–14 had a total decrease of 10.2% between 1961 and 2011.

Age group19711981199120012011
Population%Population%Population%Population%Population%
0–142,223,90425.42,307,29723.71,974,86719.21,664,08515.21,576,50014.4
15–645,587,35263.76,192,75163.66,880,68167.17,468,39568.17,122,83066.6
65+957,11610.91,239,54112.71,404,35213.71,831,54016.72,108,80719.0
Total8,768,3729,739,58910,259,90010,964,02010,816,286

Vital statistics[8][9][10]

Greece total fertility rate by region (2014)
  1.5 - 1.7
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
19215 050107 00069 00038 00021.213.77.5
19225 097110 00082 00018 00021.616.13.5
19236 010113 926102 04211 88419.017.02.0
19246 000117 01493 32023 69419.515.63.9
19255 958156 36788 63367 73426.214.911.4
19266 042181 27884 13697 14230.013.916.1
19276 127176 527100 02076 50728.816.312.5
19286 210189 250105 66583 58530.517.013.5
19296 286181 870115 56166 30928.918.410.5
19306 367199 565103 81195 75431.316.315.0
19316 463199 243114 36984 87430.817.713.1
19326 544185 523117 59367 93028.418.010.4
19336 625189 583111 44778 13628.616.811.8
19346 727208 929100 651108 27831.115.016.1
19356 837192 511101 41691 09528.214.813.3
19366 936193 343105 00588 33827.915.112.7
19377 029183 878105 67478 20426.215.011.1
19387 122184 50993 76690 74325.913.212.7
19397 222178 852100 45978 39324.813.910.9
19407 319179 48093 83085 67024.512.811.7
19417 370134 760125 7109 05018.317.11.2
19427 350132 640191 030-58 39018.026.0-7.9
19437 280122 170111 32010 85016.815.31.5
19447 300145 530110 81034 72019.915.24.8
19457 310183 47085 54097 93025.111.713.4
19467 430209 36073 500135 86028.29.918.3
19477 520206 40070 340136 06027.49.418.1
19487 500210 00096 000114 00028.012.815.2
19497 480139 10859 45079 65818.67.910.6
19507 554151 31453 75597 55920.07.112.9
19517 646155 42257 50897 91420.37.512.8
19527 733149 63753 37796 26019.46.912.4
19537 817143 76556 68087 08518.47.311.1
19547 893151 89255 62596 26719.27.012.2
19557 966154 26354 78199 48219.46.912.5
19568 031156 18759 46096 72719.47.412.0
19578 096155 19261 66493 52819.27.611.6
19588 173155 35958 16097 19919.07.111.9
19598 258160 19960 85299 34719.47.412.0
19608 334157 23960 56396 67618.97.311.62.28
19618 398150 71663 95586 76117.97.610.32.19
19628 448152 15866 55485 60418.07.910.12.23
19638 480148 24966 81381 43617.57.99.62.22
19648 510153 10969 42983 68018.08.19.82.31
19658 551151 44867 26984 17917.77.89.82.30
19668 614154 61367 91286 70117.97.910.12.38
19678 686162 83971 97590 86418.78.310.42.55
19688 741160 33873 30987 02918.38.410.02.53
19698 773154 07771 82582 25217.68.29.42.50
19708 793144 92874 00970 91916.58.48.12.34
19718 831141 12673 81967 30716.08.47.62.30
19728 889140 89176 85964 03215.98.67.22.32
19738 929137 52677 64859 87815.48.76.72.28
19748 962144 06976 30367 76616.18.57.62.39
19759 047142 27380 07762 19615.78.96.92.33
19769 167146 56681 81864 74816.08.97.12.35
19779 269143 73983 75059 98915.49.06.42.28
19789 395146 58881 61564 97315.58.76.92.29
19799 534147 96582 33865 62715.58.66.92.26
19809 643148 13487 28260 85215.49.16.32.23
19819 729140 95386 26154 69214.58.95.62.10
19829 790137 27586 34550 93014.08.85.22.03
19839 847132 60890 58642 02213.59.24.31.94
19849 896125 72488 39737 32712.78.93.81.82
19859 934116 48192 88623 59511.79.42.41.68
19869 967112 25091 46920 78111.39.22.11.60
198710 001105 89995 23210 66710.69.51.11.50
198810 037107 66893 03114 63710.79.31.51.50
198910 090101 14992 7178 43210.09.20.81.40
199010 161102 22994 1528 07710.19.30.81.39
199110 257102 62095 4987 12210.09.30.71.38
199210 370104 08198 2315 85010.09.50.61.38
199310 466101 79997 4194 3809.79.30.41.34
199410 553103 76397 8075 9569.89.30.61.35
199510 635101 495100 1581 3379.59.40.11.32
199610 710100 718100 740- 229.49.4-0.01.30
199710 777102 03899 7382 3009.59.30.21.31
199810 835100 894102 668-1 7749.39.5-0.21.29
199910 883100 643103 304-2 6619.29.5-0.21.28
200010 918103 267105 219-1 9529.59.6-0.21.26
200110 950102 282102 559- 2779.39.4-0.01.25
200210 988103 838103 915- 779.59.5-0.01.27
200311 024104 420105 529-1 1099.59.6-0.11.28
200411 062105 655104 9427139.69.50.11.30
200511 104107 545105 0912 4549.79.50.21.33
200611 148112 042105 4766 56610.19.50.61.40
200711 193111 926109 8952 03110.09.80.21.41
200811 237118 302107 97910 32310.59.60.91.55
200911 278117 933108 3169 61710.59.60.91.57
201011 290114 766109 0845 68210.29.70.51.53
201110 816106 428111 099-4 6719.810.3-0.51.42
2012[11]11 123100 371116 670-16 2999.110.6-1.51.34
2013[12]11 06294 134111 794-17 6608.510.2-1.71.28
2014[13]10 85893 429114 088-20 6598.410.4-2.01.30
2015[14]10 79391 847121 212-29 3658.511.2-2.71.33
201610 770.592 800118 800-26 0008.611.0-2.4

Immigration

Refugees in each area following the final Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Russia and Bulgaria. 20% of the population were Greek refugees including 100,000-400,000 Karamanlides
Foreign citizens in Greece in 1998 by country of citizenship,

Greece has received a large number of immigrants since the early 1990s. The majority of them come from the neighbouring countries. As of 2011, the number of foreigners in an enumerated total of 10,815,197 people was 911,299.

CitizenshipCensus 2011[15]%
 Greece9,903,26891.56
 Albania480,8244.45
 Bulgaria75,9150.70
 Romania46,5230.43
 Pakistan34,1770.31
 Georgia27,4000.25
 Ukraine17,0060.16
 United Kingdom15,3860.14
 Cyprus14,4460.13
 Poland14,1450.13
 Russia13,8070.12
 India11,3330.10
 Bangladesh11,0760.10
 Germany10,7780.09
 Egypt10,4550.09
 Moldova10,3910.09
 Philippines9,8040.09
Other108,4361
Total10,815,197100

Foreign-born by country (Eurostat):[16]

20102014
Total828,400727,500
 Albania384,600337,700
 Georgia62,60045,100
 Russia55,70043,000
 Bulgaria45,70040,900
 Romania32,40027,200
 Germany29,30025,700
 Pakistan20,10018,000
 Poland10,80016,600
 Turkey9,50012,500
 Cyprus10,20010,900
 UK5,20010,700
 Ukraine13,30010,700
 Egypt10,2009,800
 Bangladesh14,2008,400
 Syria7,5008,300
others117,100102,000

Illegal immigration

Greece has received many illegal immigrants beginning in the 1990s and continuing during the 2000s. Migrants make use of the many islands in the Aegean Sea, directly west of Turkey. A spokesman for the European Union's border control agency said that the Greek-Albanian border is "one of Europe's worst-affected external land borders." Migrants across the Evros region bordering Turkey face land-mines. Principal illegal immigrants include Albanians, Indians, Kurds, Afghans, Iraqis and Somalis.[17][18]

Ethnic groups, languages and religion

The population of northern Greece has primarily been ethnically, religiously and linguistically diverse.[19] The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece by the government. The officials define it as a group of Greek Muslims numbering 98,000 people, consisting of Turks (50%), Pomaks (35%) and Romani (15%). No other minorities are acknowledged and the Greek government has followed assimilatory policies and has discriminated against them.[20][21] There is not any official information for the size of the ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities because asking the population questions pertaining to the topic have been abolished since 1951.[22]

Map showing the distribution of major Modern Greek dialect areas
Note: Greek is the dominant language throughout Greece; inclusion in a non-Greek language zone does not necessarily imply that the relevant minority language is still spoken there, or that its speakers consider themselves an ethnic minority.
Circle frame.svg

Religion in Greece (2010) [23]

  Eastern Orthodoxy and other Christian (88.1%)
  Islam (5.3%)
  no religion (6.1%)
  others (0.5%)

Minorities in Greece according to Minority Rights Group International:[24]

– According to other sources the number of people who identify as being ethnic Macedonians is 5000-30,000[25][26]

The official language of Greece is Greek, spoken by almost all as a second language at least. Additionally, there are a number of linguistic minority groups that are bilingual in a variety of non-Greek languages, and parts of these groups identify ethnically as Greeks. The most common of all these dialects, the groups that speak them and the regions where they are considered native are:

DialectSpoken byEstimated populationRegion
Greek dialects
CretanCretans600,000Crete
ManiotManiots25,000Mani (southern Peloponnese)
PonticPontians200,000Macedonia
SarakatsanikaSarakatsani80,000Central Greece, Thessaly, Epirus
TsakonianTsakonians1,200Tsakonia (eastern Peloponnese)
Other languages
ArvanitikaArvanites50,000[27]Attica, southern Euboea, Boeotia, Peloponnese
AromanianAromanians50,000[27]Epirus, Thessaly, West Macedonia
HebrewJews5,000[27]
Bulgarian/Macedonian SlavicSlavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia, Pomaks50-80,000 (Macedonia), 10-40,000 (Thrace)[28][29][30]Macedonia, Thrace
TurkishTurks128,380 (Thrace)[31] 6,000 (Dodecanese)Thrace
RomaniRomani300,000-350,000
Native speakerscensus 1913census 1928[20][32]census 1940[32][33]census 1951[34]
Number %Number %Number %Number %
Greek7,297,87895.6
Turkish[28][35]86,506- 230,0001.4- 3.794,509- 180,0001.3- 2.5179,8952.4
Slavic[28]300,000- 500,0006.3- 10.681,844- 100,0001.3- 1.686,079- 100,0001.2- 1.441,017- 60,0000.5- 0.8
Aromanian19,6790.357,2630.839,8551.2
Albanian18,5980.320,0000.322,7360.3
Armenian[28]31,0380.526,7960.49,0000.1
Hebrew/Ladino[27][28]63,0001.052,7060.71,3000.0
Others51,4200.7
Total4,734,9906,204,6847,344,8607,632,801
Religious population in Greece at the 1951 Census[34]
Orthodox7,472,559 (97.9%)
Muslim112,665 (0.4%)
Catholic28,430 (0.4%)
Protestant and other Christian12,677 (0.2%)
Jewish6,325 (0.1%)
Total7,632,801

According to the Greek constitution, Eastern Orthodox Christianity is recognized as the "prevailing religion" in Greece. During the centuries that Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, besides its spiritual mandate, the Orthodox Church, based in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), also functioned as an official representative of the Christian population of the empire. The Church is often credited with the preservation of the Greek language, values, and national identity during Ottoman times. The Church was also an important rallying point in the war for independence, although this latter position is somewhat controversial as the official Church in Constantinople initially condemned the breakout of armed struggle against the Empire. The Church of Greece was established shortly after the formation of a Greek national state. Its authority to this day extends only to the areas included in the independent Greek state before the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. There is a Muslim minority concentrated in Thrace and officially protected by the Treaty of Lausanne. Besides Pomaks (Muslim Bulgarian[4] speakers) and Roma, it consists mainly of ethnic Turks, who speak Turkish and receive instruction in Turkish at special government-funded schools. There are also a number of Jews in Greece, most of whom live in Thessaloniki. There are also some Greeks who adhere to a reconstruction of the ancient Greek religion.[36] A place of worship has been recognized as such by court.[37]

Education

Greek education is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 15. English study is compulsory from first grade through high school. University education, including books, is also free, contingent upon the student's ability to meet stiff entrance requirements. A high percentage of the student population seeks higher education. More than 100,000 students are registered at Greek universities, and 15% of the population currently holds a university degree. Admission in a university is determined by state-administered exams, the candidate's grade-point average from high school, and his/her priority choices of major. About one in four candidates gains admission to Greek universities.

Greek law does not currently offer official recognition to the graduates of private universities that operate in the country, except for those that offer a degree valid in another European Union country, which is automatically recognized by reciprocity. As a result, a large and growing number of students are pursuing higher education abroad. The Greek Government decides through an evaluation procedure whether to recognize degrees from specific foreign universities as qualification for public sector hiring. Other students attend private, post-secondary educational institutions in Greece that are not recognized by the Greek Government. At the moment extensive public talk is made for the reform of the Constitution in order to recognize private higher education in Greece as equal with public and to place common regulations for both.

The number of Greek students studying at European institutions is increasing along with EU support for educational exchange. In addition, nearly 5,000 Greeks are studying in the United States, about half of whom are in graduate school. Greek per capita student representation in the US (one every 2,200) is among the highest in Europe.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[38]

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.2% (male 787,143/female 741,356)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 3,555,447/female 3,567,383)
65 years and over: 19.6% (male 923,177/female 1,185,630) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 42.5 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 43.6 years (2011 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.05 years
male: 77.48 years
female: 82.79 years (2012 est.)

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. 2015. p. 14. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  2. ^ "Statistics Estonia - Total Fertility Rate- Number of Children Per Woman". Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook: Infant Mortality Rate". Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G., Jr., ed. (2005). "Bulgarian". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Πίνακας 9. Πληθυσμός κατά υπηκοότητα και φύλο - Σύνολο Ελλάδος, αστικές και αγροτικές περιοχές - Απογραφή πληθυσμού της 18ης Μαρτίου 2001 [Table 9. Population by nationality and sex - Total for Greece, urban and rural areas - Census of 18 March 18, 2001] (PDF). Census (in Ελληνικά). www.statistics.gr. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009. 
  6. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen, The Shotgun Method: The Demography of the Ancient Greek City-State Culture, University of Missouri Press, 2006. Book review
  7. ^ "2011 census". 
  8. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750-1975.
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  10. ^ "Population and Social Conditions: Demography". Hellenic Statistical Authority. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "Vital Statistics 2012" (PDF). Division of Population and Labour Market Statistics (Press release). Piraeus, Greece: Hellenic Statistical Authority. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  12. ^ ΕΛΣΤΑΤ: Περαιτέρω μείωση των γεννήσεων πέρυσι – Διπλάσιες στην Τουρκία [ELSTAT: Further reduction of births last year - Two-fold in Turkey] (in Ελληνικά). skai.gr. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  13. ^ Μειώθηκε ο πληθυσμός της Ελλάδας το 2014 - Περισσότεροι οι θάνατοι από τις γεννήσεις [The population of Greece decreased in 2014 - More deaths than births] (in Ελληνικά). taxheaven.gr. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2015. 
  14. ^ "Vital Statistics 2015 - Press release". Hellenic Statistical Authority - ELSTAT. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
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  17. ^ "Destabilization Through Illegal Immigration in Greece". Research Institute for European and American Analysis. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. 
  18. ^ Kitsantonis, Niki (4 October 2007). "Greece struggles to curb influx of illegal immigrants". New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  19. ^ "Greece: People: Ethnic groups". Britannica online. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR". Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  21. ^ ΜΟΥΣΟΥΛΜΑΝΙΚΗ ΜΕΙΟΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΘΡΑΚΗΣ [Muslim Minority of Thrace] (in Ελληνικά). Athens, Greece: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hellenic Resources Network. June 1999. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
    ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΣΦΑΤΗ ΑΠΟΓΡΑΦΗ ΤΟΥ ΠΛΗΘΥΣΜΟΥ [Figures from the recent Population Census] (in Ελληνικά). Water Info. 2001. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  22. ^ Fassmann, Heinz; Reeger, Ursula; Sievers, Wiebke (2009). Statistics and Reality: Concepts and Measurements of Migration in Europe. Amsterdam University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-90-8964-052-9. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
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  26. ^ GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM) & MINORITY RIGHTS GROUP – GREECE (MRG-G) Archived 23 May 2003 at the Wayback Machine. - In the report it is stated that: “...those with a Macedonian national identity can be estimated to between 10,000-30,000. Indeed, the political party “Rainbow” which was created in 1994 and has campaigned for the recognition of a national Macedonian minority, received 7,300 votes in 1994 and 5,000 in 1999, two elections it contested alone: these figures correspond to some 7,000-10,000 citizens of all (not just voting) ages. One can estimate that besides this “hard core” there may be other citizens voting for mainstream parties that also espouse this identity, hence the above estimate.“
  27. ^ a b c d Trudgill, Peter; Schreier, Daniel (2006). "Greece and Cyprus". In Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier; Peter Trudgill. Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. 3 (2nd ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1881–1889 [esp. pg.1883]. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
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